Hardware Basic : Prosesor, Memori dan Secondary Storage

Hardware Basic : Prosesor, Memori dan Secondary Storage

1. SEJARAH SINGKAT PROSESOR
Mikroprosesor yang pertama kali diciptakan adalah intel 4004 pda tahun 1971.
Prosesor ini sangat sederhana hanya bisa untuk operasi sebesar 4 bit per detik.
Aplikasi prosesor ini untuk menyusun kalkulator elektronik portable.
Pada tahun 1974, prosesor intel 8080 pertama kali dipergunakan untuk komputer
rumah. PC yang dikenal saat ini diperkenalkan pertama kali oleh IBM pada tahun 1982
dengan nama IBM PC, menggunakan mikroprosesor intel 8088 yang sebenarnya telah
diperkenalkan pada tahun 1979.
Catatan :
Tahun menyatakan tahun saat prosesor diproduksi pertama kali. Sedangkan
prosesor yang namanya sama berarti prosesor tersebut dikembangkan beberapa
kali.
Transistor menyatakan jumlah transistor yang terkandung dalam sebuah chip.
Kecepatan clock menyatakan jumlah pulsa yang dapat dibangkitkan oleh clock
pemicu prosesor.
Lebar data menyatakan lebar dari ALU (bagian prosesor yang menangani
mengontrol kinerja komputer).
MIPS (Millions of Instructions Per Second) menyatakan jumlah instruksi yang
dapat diproses per detik oleh prosesor.
2. ANEKA PROSESOR
Processor : Merupakan inti Komputer dimana semua eksekusi program dijalankan olehnya. Nama lainnya CPU atau Central Processing Unit, atau disebut pula otak Komputer, Chip Utama, Core, dll. Ada 2 Pabrikan yang ternama didalam memproduksi CPU kelas Desktop PC dan SERVER. Yaitu : Intel Corporation dan AMD (Advanced Micro Device), kedua produsen ini sama-sama berpusat di Amerika Serikat dan keduanya pun bersaing ketat dalam hal teknologi CPU dan Harga.
Namun, Intel dalam banyak hal lebih dikenal secara umum oleh masyarakat dan dipakai hampir 80% pengguna Komputer diseluruh dunia, wajar saja jika kita akan lebih mudah mencari bekasan produk-produk berbasis Intel ketimbang produk berbasis AMD.
Ada pun AMD hingga saat ini lebih mengandalkan harga yang murah untuk menarik peminat Komputersedangkan mutu rata-rata masih dibawa intel secara teknologi maupun kemampuan kerja. Akan tetapi disinilah keunggulan AMD dimana ia senantiasa menawarkan solusi murah bagi anda yang menginginkan kinerja yang kuat dan cepat.
Produk – Produk Intel :

  1. Intel Pentium : Ini merupakan produk processor yang paling popular. Umurnya paling panjang karena hingga kini masih diproduksi. Dimulai dari Pentium, Pentium MMX, Pentium II, Pentium III, dan Pentium 4.
  2. Intel Celeron : ini merupkan saudara dari Pentium dengan spesifikasi rendah dan harga yang lebih murah. Celeron dibuat sebagai solusi murah bagi mereka yang kurang mampu membeli jajaran processor Pentium yang Mahal. Jika Pentium orientasi ke pengguna kelas menengah keatas dimana bisaanya digunakan untuk bisnis sedangkan Celeron di peruntukkan kelas bawah dimana Komputer hanya dimaksudkan untuk pelengkap hiburan rumah tangga.
  3. Intel Pentium Dual Core atau Core Duo : cpu ini masih dalam kategori Pentium generasi baru dimana inti core-nya dipecah menjadi memiliki kemampuan kerja ganda. Walaupun secara fisik terlihat 1 inti chip namun secara kemampuan iabisa menjalankan 2 intruksi sekaligus dalam satu waktu.
  4. Intel Core 2 Duo : ini merupakan pengembangan dari Dual core dimana unit core didalam cpu dibuat benar-benar terpisah menjadi 2 Core dan mampu masing-masing mengerjakan intruksi per-core-nya dalam satu waktu. Jika dual core satu inti dengan 2 kemampuan kerja maka core 2 duo benar-benar memiliki 2 inti yang bisa mengerjakan 1 pekerjaan per corenya dan lebih kuat kerjanya.
  5. Intel Core 2 Quad : ini CPU yang menggabungkan antara Dual core dengan Core 2 Duo, sehingga dalam satu chip memiliki 2 inti core dan masing-masing inti memiliki 2 kemampuan kerja. Nah, jadinya core 2 quad ini terlihat seperti memiliki 4 core yang bisa mengerjakan 4 intruksi sekaligus dalam 1 waktu.
  6. Intel Core i3 : nah, processor kelas murah dengan kemampuan Core i series. Harganya setara dengan core 2 duo atau core 2 quad (satu jutaan). Spesifikasinya kurang lebih sama dengan Core i5, hanya saja tanpa Turbo boost dan beberapa fitur dihilangkan.
  7. Intel Core i5 : ini merupakan versi menengah dari keluarga cpu Core i series. Dengan kemampuan yang sedikit dikurangi, seperti jumlah thread atau corenya  dikurangi, sisanya dengan fitur yang sama kecuali unlock multiplier-nya yang dikunci pada core i5. Untuk tipenya samasaja dengan core i7 seperti Nehalem, sandybridge, dan Ivybridge.
  8. Intel Core i7 : Ini merupakan generasi mutakhir dari Intel dengan segudang fitur dan kemampuan yang banyak. Selain menawarkan jumlah core dan treadhing yang banyak serta kecepatan yang tinggi, CPU ini juga sudah dibenamkan integrated VGA Intel HD, Chipset, Smart Cache, Smart hyperthreading, turboboost, dual atau triple cannel Memory, dll. Tentu saja harganya sangat mahal. Ada 3 jenis core i7 yang diproduksi saat ini –          Intel Core i7 Awal (Nehalem) : 4 inti core dan 8 Threading Intruction.
    –          Intel Core i7 Menengah (Sandy Bridge) : 6 Inti Core dan 12 Threading.
    –          Intel Core i7 Terbaru (Ivy Bridge) 4 – 8 inti dan 8 – 16 Threading.
3. KECEPATAN PROSESOR
Angka dan satuan yang terletak setelah nama prosesor menyatakan kecepatan
prosesor atau lebih tepatnya adalah jumlah pulsa yang dapat dihasilkan oleh clock pada
prosesor per detik. MIPS biasa digunakan pada workstation, minicomputer, an
mainframe, sedangan flops biasa diguanakan pada supercomputer. Satuan yang lebih
besar dari flops adalah megaflops, gigaflops, teraflops, dan petaflops.
4. MULTIPROSESOR
1. Pengertian

Multiprocessor adalah sistem komputer dengan dua atau lebih CPU identik yang membagi akses secara penuh kepada common RAM (Shared Memory MultiProcessor).

Pengertian lainnya multiprocessing dalam teknologi informasi adalah :

  1. Dukungan sebuah sistem untuk mendukung lebih dari satu processor dan mengalokasikan tugas kepada prosesor-prosesor tersebut.
  2. Kemampuan esksekusi terhadap beberapa proses perangkat lunak  dalam sebuah sistem secara serentak. Perhatikan Gambar dibawah ini :

Beberapa proses terpisah dialokasikan di dalam memory. Ruang alamat proses terdiri dari halaman – halaman sehingga hanya sebagian saja dari proses tersebut yang berada dalam memory pada satu waktu. Hal ini memungkinkan banyak prosesdapat aktif.

Sistem multiprosesor yakni :

– Terlihat bahwa memori dibagi secara merata ke semua prosesor

–  Semua prosesor mempunyai waktu akses yang sama ke semua word memori

–  Setiap prosesor menggunakan private cache

2. Kelebihan Multiprocessor

  1. Peningkatan throughput, karena lebih banyak proses/thread yang berjalan dalam satu waktu sekaligus (jika proses yang antri di ready queue sedikit). Perlu diingat hal ini tidak berarti daya komputasinya menjadi meningkat sejumlah prosesornya. Yang meningkat adalah jumlah pekerjaan yang bisa dilakukannya dalam waktu tertentu.
  2. Economy of sale (ekonomis), ekonomis dalam devices yang dibagi bersama-sama. Prosesor-prosesor terdapat dalam satu komputer dan dapat membagi peripheral (ekonomis) seperti disk dan catu daya listrik.
  3. Peningkatan kehandalan (reliabilitas), jika satu prosesor mengalami suatu gangguan, maka proses yang terjadi masih dapat berjalan dengan baik karena tugas prosesor yang terganggu diambil alih oleh prosesor lain. Hal ini dikenal dengan istilah Graceful Degradation. Sistemnya sendiri dikenal bersifat fault tolerant atau failoft system.
  1. Jenis – jenis Multiprocessor

Multiprocessing dapat dibagi ke dalam beberapa kelas, yakni:

Asymmetric Multiprocessing (AMP)

Pendekatan pertama untuk Multiprocessor Scheduling adalah asymmetric multiprocessingScheduling atau biasa disebut juga sebagai penjadwalan Master Slave MultiProcessor. Dimana pada metode ini satu prosesor bertindak sebagai master dan prosesor lainnya sebagai slave. Master Processor bertugas untuk menjadualkan dan mengalokasikan proses yang akan dijalankan oleh Slave Processors. Master Processor melakukan pekerjaan yang berhubungan dengan System, Slave Processor melayani user requests dalam pengeksekusian program. Pemrosesan yang banyak tidak menyebabkan penurunanperformance.

Metode ini sederhana karena hanya satu prosesor yang mengakses struktur data sistem dan juga mengurangi data sharing. Sebagai contoh, prosesor master memilih proses yang akan dieksekusi, kemudian mencari prosesor yang available, dan memberikan instruksi start processor. Prosesor slave memulai eksekusi pada lokasi memori yang dituju. Saat slave mengalami sebuah kondisi tertentu, prosesor slave memberi interupsi kepada prosesor master dan berhenti untuk menunggu perintah selanjutnya. Perlu diketahui bahwa prosesor slave yang berbeda dapat ditujukan untuk suatu proses yang sama pada waktu yang berbeda. Master processor dapat mengeksekusi OS dan menangani I/O, sedangkan sisanya processor tidak punya kemampuan I/O dan disebut sebagai Attached Processor (Aps). APs mengeksekusi kodekode user dibawah pengawasan master processor.

Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP)

Pada Komputer stand alone dengan karakteristik berikut (William Stallings):

  • Dua atau lebih processor yang sama dengan kapasitas yang sebanding
  • Processor membagi I/O dan memory yang sama
  • Processor terkoneksi oleh bus atau koneksi internal lainya
  • Waktu akses moemory kira-kira sama pada setiap processor
  • Seluruh processor membagi akses I/O baik pada chanel yang sama maupun berbeda dengan memberikan path ke device yang sama
  • Seluruh Processor mengerjakan fungsi yang sama (hence symetric)
  • Sistem dikontrol oleh OS yang terintegrasi menyediakan interaksi antara processor atau interaksi terjadi pada job, task, file, data pada level-level elemen.
  • SMP merupakan Tightly Coupled System
  • Mempunyai lebih dari satu prosesor
  • Dapat berkomunikasi
  • Membagi bus, clock, perangkat memory, dan peripheral.
  • Setiap prosesor menjalankan sistem operasi yang identik dan komunikasi antar prosesor jika diperlukan

Dalam Klasifikasi Organisasi Symmetric MultiprocessoPenjadwalan SMP adalah pendekatan kedua untuk Multiprocessor Scheduling. Pada metode ini setiap prosesor menjadwalkan dirinya sendiri (self scheduling). Penjadwalan terlaksana dengan menjadwalkan setiap prosesor untuk memeriksa antrian ready dan memilih suatu proses untuk dieksekusi. Jika suatu sistem Multiprocessor Scheduling mencoba untuk mengakses dan mengupdate suatu struktur data, penjadwal dari prosesor-prosesor tersebut harus diprogram dengan hati-hati, kita harus yakin bahwa dua prosesor tidak memilih proses yang sama dan proses tersebut tidak hilang dari antrian. Secara virtual, semua sistem operasi modern mendukung SMP, termasuk Windows XP, Windows 2000, Windows Vista, Solaris, Linux, Mac OS X, OS/2 Warp Server 4.0 , OS/2 for SMP 2.11, Windows NT 4.0 , Novell NetWare 4.1 SMP, Novell UnixWare SMP 2.0 , SCO Open Server 5.0 with SCO MPX 3.0 , Banyan Vines , Symbian OS (Mobile Device)
Setiap prosesor memiliki akses ke memori utama dan perangkat-perangkat I/O bagi-pakai melalui mekanisme interkoneksi tertentu

Time-shared atau Common Bus :

  • Prosesor dapat berkomunikasi dengan prosesor lainnya melalui memori
  • Time shared bus adalah mekanisme simpel untuk membangun sistem multi-processor, struktur dan inteface sama pada single processor yaitu penggunaan bus interconnection

Fitur:

  • Pengalamatan (Addressing) = Membedakan module untuk mengalokasikan data dari sumber ke tujuan
  • Artbitrasi (Artbitration) = Mekanisme penyediaan permintaan acak -lebih penting didahulukan- untuk kontrol bus dengan skema prioritas
  • Time Sharing = Jika satu mudule berada di bus, yang lain harus menunggu dan bisa juga di tunda operasinya.

Keuntungannya Time-shared Bus :

  • Simplicity = Fisik interface, addressing, arbitration, dan time –sharing logic tiap processor sama seperti sistem single processor
  • Flexibility = mudah ekspansi sistem dengan menyisipkan beberapa processor ke dalam bus
  • Reliability = kesalahan pada penyisipan device tidak mengakibatkan kegagalan pada seluruh sistem

Kerugian Time-shared Bus :

  • Performa terbatas pada bus cycle time
  • Setiap processor harus memiliki local chace
  • Mengurangi beberapa akses bus
  • Masalah Pada “chace coherence” (dijelaskan nanti)

Multiport Memory

  • Pengijinan akses langsung, dan independen pada modul memory oleh setiap processor
  • Kebutuhan logic untuk pemecahan conflict

Central Control Unit

  • Pembagian data stream antara independent modul seperti; processor, memory, I/O.
  • Dapat melakukan buffer pada permintaan
  • Melakukan arbitrasi dan penjadwalan
  • Melakukan status dan kontrol
  • Melakukan cache update alerting
  • Contoh. IBM S/390

Operating system untuk SMP:

  • Simultaneous concurrent processes = Manajemen eksekusi IS code yang sama secara simultan pada OS routine
  • Scheduling = Melakukan Penjadwalan untuk menghindari conflict
  • Synchronization = Sinkronisasi yang efektif pada shared address/ shared I/O
  • Memory management = Pengaturan memory yang akurat pada multiport
  • Reliability and fault tolerance = Pengenalan kesalahan pada processor

Processor unit (PU) terdiri dari : CISC microprocessor, Frequently used instructions hard wired, 64k L1 unified cache with 1 cycle access timeMainframe SMP pada IBM S/390

  • L2 cache : 384k
  • Bus switching network adapter (BSN) : Includes 2M of L3 cache, Memory card, 8G per card
  • Lock digunakan untuk proses sinkronisasi, apabila ada 2 atau lebih proses yang ingin mengakses alamat memori yang sama dan mengubah shared memory. Dalam skema tersebut, salah satu penjadwalan akan digunakan. Salah satu cara menggunakan symmetric multiprocessing(SMP). Dimana setiap prosesor menjadwalkan diri sendiri. Setiap prosesor memeriksa ready queue dan memilih proses yang akan dieksekusi.
  • Mengumpulkan dan merawat informasi tentang copian data pada cache
  • Directory tersimpan pada memory
  • Permintaan di cek oleh directory
  • Pelaksanaan transfer yang lebih penting dahulu
  • Pembuatan sentral bottleneck
  • Efektif pada sistem skala besar dengan interkoneksi skema yang kompleks

Dalam sistem multiprocessing, semua CPU mungkin sama, atau beberapa mungkin disediakan untuk tujuan khusus. Sebuah kombinasi antara perangkat lunak perangkat keras dan pertimbangan desain sistem operasi menentukan simetri (atau kekurangan daripadanya) dalam sistem tertentu. Sebagai contoh, perangkat keras atau perangkat lunak mungkin memerlukan pertimbangan

bahwa hanya satu CPU menanggapi semua hardware interrupts, sedangkan semua pekerjaan lain dalam sistem boleh didistribusikan merata antara CPU, atau eksekusi kode kernel-mode dapat dibatasi hanya satu prosesor (baik prosesor tertentu, atau hanya satu prosesor pada satu waktu), sedangkan kode pengguna-mode mungkin dijalankan dalam setiap kombinasi prosesor. Sistem Multiprocessing sering lebih mudah untuk merancang jika larangan tersebut diberlakukan, tetapi mereka cenderung kurang efisien dibandingkan dengan sistem di mana semua CPU yang digunakan.

Jika suatu pekerjaan bisa diorganisasikan, maka porsi yang sama pada sebuah pekerjaan bisa dilakukan secara paralel, sehingga sistem dengan multiple processor akan menunjukan performa yang tingggi dibandingkan single processor (William Stallings)

Sistem yang memperlakukan semua CPU sama disebut multiprocessing simetris (SMP) sistem. Dalam sistem dimana semua CPU yang tidak sama, sumber daya sistem dapat dibagi dalam beberapa cara, termasuk asymmetric multiprocessing (AMP), non-seragam akses memori (NUMA) multiprocessing, dan berkelompok multiprocessing

3.Permasalahan pada Multiprocessor Scheduling

1)   Load sharing : dapat terjadi apabila proses yang jalan di satu prosesor overload sehingga sebagian proses berpindah ke prosesor yang lain

2)   Time Sharing : masing – masing proses akan dijalankan bila terdapat CPU yang telah menyelesaikan job nya

3)   Space Sharing: multiple threads dalam waktu yang sama masuk ke multiple CPUs

4)   Gang scheduling: semua thread berasal dari proses yang running pada suatu waktu

ü Non-uniform memory access (NUMA) multiprocessing

Non-Uniform Memory Access atau Non-Uniform Memory Arsitektur (NUMA) adalah memori komputer Rancangan yang digunakan dalam multiprocessors , dimana waktu akses memori tergantung pada lokasi memori relatif terhadap prosesor. Under NUMA, Dalam NUMA, prosesor atau NUMA multiprocessor adalah sebuah sistem shared memory dimana waktu aksesnya bervariasi ke lokasi memori word.

  • Shared memory yang secara phisik didistribusikan kesemua process disebut lokal memori, dan kumpulan dari lokal memori membentuk ruang alamat global yang dapat diakses oleh semua process.
  • NUMA dapat mengakses lokal memori lebih cepat dengan local process, sedangkan akses ke memori yang jauh diberikan ke process lain yang kapasistasnya lebih besar untuk ditambah delay melalui interconeksi jaringan (BBN Butterfly).
  • Disamping distribusi memori, secara umum shared memory dapat ditambahkan ke multiprocessor system, dalam hal ini ada tiga pola akses memory, dimana yang tercepat adalah akses ke lokal memori, akses ke global memori dan yang paling lambat adalah akses dari memory yang jauh (Hierarchical Cluster Model )

– Clustering

  1. SISD (Single Instruction on Single Data Stream)

Satu prosesorYang merupakan singkatan dari Single Instruction, Single Data adalah satu-satunya yang menggunakan arsitektur Von Neumann. Ini dikarenakan pada model ini hanya digunakan 1 processor saja. Oleh karena itu model ini bisa dikatakan sebagai model untuk komputasi tunggal. Sedangkan ketiga model lainnya merupakan komputasi paralel yang menggunakan beberapa processor. Beberapa contoh komputer yang menggunakan model SISD adalah UNIVAC1, IBM 360, CDC 7600, Cray 1 dan PDP 1.

  • Satu instruksi stream
  • Data disimpan di satu memori
  • Disebut Uni-processor

Yang merupakan singkatan dari Single Instruction, Multiple Data. SIMD menggunakan banyak processor dengan instruksi yang sama, namun setiap processor mengolah data yang berbeda. Sebagai contoh kita ingin mencari angka 27 pada deretan angka yang terdiri dari 100 angka, dan kita menggunakan 5 processor. Pada setiap processor kita menggunakan algoritma atau perintah yang sama, namun data yang diproses berbeda. Misalnya processor 1 mengolah data dari deretan / urutan pertama hingga urutan ke 20, processor 2 mengolah data dari urutan 21 sampai urutan 40, begitu pun untuk processor-processor yang lain. Beberapa contoh komputer yang menggunakan model SIMD adalah ILLIAC IV, MasPar, Cray X-MP, Cray Y-MP, Thingking Machine CM-2 dan Cell Processor (GPU).ü SIMD (Single Instruction on Multiple Data Stream)

  • Instruksi mesin tunggal
  • Eksekusi dikendalikan secara simultan
  • Terdapat sejumlah elemen proses
  • Setiap instruksi dieksekusi dalam set data yang berbeda oleh proses yang berbeda

Yang merupakan singkatan dari Multiple Instruction, Single Data. MISD menggunakan banyak processor dengan setiap processor menggunakan instruksi yang berbeda namun mengolah data yang sama. Hal ini merupakan kebalikan dari model SIMD. Untuk contoh, kita bisa menggunakan kasus yang sama pada contoh model SIMD namun cara penyelesaian yang berbeda. Pada MISD jika pada komputer pertama, kedua, ketiga, keempat dan kelima sama-sama mengolah data dari urutan 1-100, namun algoritma yang digunakan untuk teknik pencariannya berbeda di setiap processor. Sampai saat ini belum ada komputer yang menggunakan model MISD.

– MISD (Multiple Instruction on Single Data Stream)

  • Satu Aliran Instruksi
  • Banyak Aliran Data
  • Belum dapat diimplementasikan dengan baik

-MIMD (Multiple Instruction on Multiple Data Stream)

Terdiri dari sejumlah set prosesor. Yang merupakan singkatan dari Multiple Instruction, Multiple Data. MIMD menggunakan banyak processor dengan setiap processor memiliki instruksi yang berbeda dan mengolah data yang berbeda. Namun banyak komputer yang menggunakan model MIMD juga memasukkan komponen untuk model SIMD. Beberapa komputer yang menggunakan model MIMD adalah IBM POWER5, HP/Compaq AlphaServer, Intel IA32, AMD Opteron, Cray XT3 dan IBM BG/L

  • Terdiri dari sejumlah set data yang berbeda
  • Secara simultan mengeksekusi urutan instruksi yang berbeda

Sifat komputer MIMD:

  • Mendistribusikan pemrosesan ke sejumlah prosesor independen.
  • Membagikan sumber termasuk memori utama ke prosesor independen.
  • Setiap prosesor menjalankan programnya sendiri.
  • Setiap prosesor berfungsi secara independen dan bersama-sama.
  1. Berdasarkan kedekatan antar prosesor, dapat dibagi ke dalam

Loosely coupled

  • Mendistribusikan komputasi diantara beberapa prosessor. Prosessor berkomunikasi dengan prosessor lain melalui saluran komunikasi, misalnya bus kecepatan tinggi atau saluran telepon. Sistem ini disebut loosely coupled system atau sistem terdistribusi (distributed system) dengan menggunakan memory local atau multi komputer.
    · Setiap site memiliki processor, memori lokal dan clock sendiri namun semua resource dapat diakses dari setiap site.
  • Proses yang dijalankan pada komputer yang berbeda modul saling berkomunikasi dengan bertukar pesan melalui Message Transfer System (MTS).

Tight coupling di antara window adalah konsep antarmuka yang mendukung koordinasi secara global atau multi processor.

Thightly coupled

  • Prosesor berkomunikasi antara satu dengan yang lain dengan cara berbagi memori utama, sehingga kecepatan komunikasi dari satu prosesor ke yang lain tergantung pada bandwidth memori.
  • Sebuah memori lokal kecil atau buffer (cache) kemungkinan terdapat pada setiap prosesor untuk memperbaiki kinerja.

5.  KARAKTERISTIK SISTEM PENYIMPANAN DATA
-Location
Lokasi adalah dimana letak memori tersebut, biasanya terdapat dua tempat yaitu didalam (Internal) atau diluar (Eksternal) komputer, untuk yang didalam komputer kadang sering disamakan sebagai main memori, padahal ada bentuk memori yang lain. Contohnya processor memiliki register memori dan ada juga yang disebut chace memori. Untuk yang eksternal memori, yaitu suatu media yang pengaksesannya memerlukan proses I/O seperti disk atau tape.
-Capacity
Kapasitas adalah sebuah karakteristik nyata dari memori. Biasanya kapasitas internal memori dituliskan dalam bytes (1 byte = 8 bits) atau instruksi. Umunya panjang instruksi adalah 8, 16, dan 32 bits. Sedangkan eksternal memori biasa di tuliskan dalam byte.
Unit of Transfer
Untuk internal memori, Unit Of Transfer sama dengan jumlah baris data yang keluar masuk ruang memori dalam satu waktu.
-Access Method
• Sequential Access : memori diorganisasikan dalam unit-unit data yang disebut record. Pengaksesannya harus dibuat secara linear berurutan. Setiap data diberikan indeks alamat untuk memisahkan setiap record dan agar memudahkan pengaksesan kembali data. Dengan metode akses ini akan membutuhkan waktu yang lama untuk mengakses suatu data karena pencarian data dilakukan secara satu-persatu. Contohnya tape memori.
• Direct Access : berbeda dengan Sequential Access pada metode ini, setiap blok record diberikan alamat khusus dalam memori. Untuk mengakses suatu data, kita langsung dapat mengetahui tempat data tersebut disimpan melalui alamat khusus. Sehingga proses pembacaan data cepat. Contohnya disk memori.
• Random Access : setiap data diberikan lokasi pengalamatan khusus dan ditempatkan disembarang tempat pada memori. Sehingga data diakses secara acak dan langsung. Contohnya memori utama dan chace memori.
• Assosiative : ini adalah salah satu metode Random Access yang dapat membentuk instruksi penempatan data dan pencocokkan data sendiri, dan semua instruksi dijalankan bersamaan. Chace memori dapat menggunakan metode ini.
-Performance
Ada tiga parameter Performance yang digunakan :
• Access Time : yaitu waktu yang ditempuh untuk melakukan proses baca tulis data.
• Memory Cycle Time : konsep ini adalah pokok yang direpkan pada Random Access, dan terdiri dari Access Time ditambah waktu proses yang dibutuhkan sebelum akses kedua dimulai. Memory Cycle Time berhubungan dengan sistem bus dan tak berhubungan dengan Processor.
• Transfer Rate : yaitu kecepatan mentransfer data masuk atau keluar unit memori. Untuk Random Access sama dengan 1 / (Cycle Time), sedangkan pada Non-Random-Access menggunakan persamaan ini :
Tn=Ta+ N/R
Dimana Tn = Rata-rata waktu untuk membaca dan menulis N bits.
Ta = Rata-rata waktu akses.
N = Banyak bits.
R = Kecapatan transfer, dalam bits per second (bps).
-Physical Type
Yaitu bahan yang dugunakan untuk membuat memori, kabanyakan saat ini digunakan bahan semikonduktor.
Physical Characteristic
Beberapa karakter fisik memori sangat penting. Pada Volatile Memory informasi akan hilang dengan otomatis ketika power listrik dimatikan. Sedangkan pada Unvolatile Memory, data akan direkam dalam memori tanpa adanya kehilangan data. Contohnya magnetik memori adalah Unvolatile Memory. Sedangkan semikonduktor bisa Volatile ataupun Unvolatile Memory. Nonerasable Memory contohnya termasuk Unvolatile Memory, data dalam memori ini tak dapat dihapus kecuali jika terjadi kerusakan media. Nonerasable Memory dalam semikonduktor dikenal dengan ROM (Read Only Memory).
Organization
Dengan mengorganisasikan berarti mengatur penyusunan instruksi-instruksi setiap bit. Walaupun kenyataannya pengorganisasian tidak selalu digunakan.
-Hirarki Media Penyimpanan
Ada banyak media penyimpanan berkas, dan semuanya diklasifikasikan berdasarkan kecepatan baca tulis data, dan waktu yang dibutuhkan untuk mengakses data, yaitu :
Chace Memory
Memori berkapasitas terbatas, berkecepatan tinggi yang lebih mahal daripada memori utama. Cache memory ini ada diantara Main Memory dan Register pemroses, berfungsi agar pemroses tidak langsung mengacu pada memori utama agar kinerja dapat ditingkatkan.
Chace memory terbagi menjadi dua yaitu :
1. Cache Memory yang terdapat pada internal Processor , chace memory jenis ini kecepatan aksesnya sangat tinggi, dan harganya sangat mahal. Hal ini bisa terlihat pada Processor yang berharga mahal seperti P4,P3,AMD-Athlon dll, semakin tinggi kapasitas L1,L2 Chace memori maka semakin mahal dan semakin ceppat Processor.
2. Chace Memory yang terdapat diluar Processor, yaitu berada pada MotherBoard, memori jenis ini kecepatan aksesnya sangat tinggi, meskipun tidak secepat chache memori jenis pertama ( yang ada pada internal Processor). Semakin besar kapasitasnya maka semakin mahal dan cepat. Hal ini bisa kita lihat pada Motherboard dengan beraneka ragam kapasitas chace memory yaitu 256kb, 512kb, 1Mb, 2Mb dll.
Main Memory
Media penyimpanan yang digunakan ketika data akan dioperasikan adalah Main Memory (Memori Utama). Umumnya mekanisasi pengoperaian data dilakukan di Main Memory. Walaupun Main Memory berukuran bermega-mega byte atau bergiga-giga byte, tetap saja Main Memory terlalu kecil untuk penyimpanan database. Selain itu Main Memory akan kehilangan data ketika listrik dimatikan atau ketika sistem crash (error).
• ROM (Read Only Memory)
ROM ( Read Only memory) yaitu memory yang hanya bisa dibaca saja datanya atau programnya. Pada PC, ROM terdapat pada BIOS ( Basic Input Output System) yang terdapat pada Mother Board yang berfungsi untuk men-setting peripheral yang ada pada system. Contoh: AMIBIOS, AWARD BIOS, dll
ROM untuk BIOS terdapat beragam jenis diantaranya jenis Flash EEPROM BIOS yang memiliki kemampuan untuk dapat diganti programnya dengan software yang disediakan oleh perusahhan pembuat Mother Board, yang umumnya penggantian tersebut untuk peningkatan unjuk kerja dari peripheral yang ada di Mother Board.
• RAM(Random Access Memory)
o DRAM
DRAM (Dynamic RAM) yaitu salah satu tipe RAM yang menyimpan setiap bit data dalam sebuah Capasitor terpisah dalam sebuah IC (Integrated Circuit). Ketika Capasitor – Capasitor jarang di charge, maka dimungkinkan data yang ada pada Capasitor hilang, sehingga Capasitor harus dicharge (refresh) secara periodik. DRAM sangat berlawanan dengan SRAM (Static RAM) dan static memori lainnya. Keuntungan SRAM adalah struktur nya yang sederhana. Hanya satu Transistor dan satu Capasitor yang diperlukan per bit. Sehingga dibandingkan dengan SRAM, DRAM lebih padat. Karena DRAM akan kehilangan data ketika power listrik dimatikan maka DRAM termasuk Volatile Memory.
o SRAM
SRAM (Static RAM), sama halnya dengan DRAM atalah salah satu tipe dari RAM. Perbedaannya dengan DRAM adalah data yang disimpan dalam SRAM bersifat static, sehingga selama teraliri power listrik, maka data akan tetap utuh, berbeda dengan DRAM yang secara periodik harus di refreshq. Selain itu SRAM digunakan untuk Chace Memory (baikitu didalam maupun diluar chip), sedangkan DRAM digunakan untuk Main Memory, sehingga kecepatan SRAM lebih cepat dari DRAM.
RAM (Random Acces Memory) yaitu memori yang memiliki kemampuan untuk dirubah data atau program yang tersimpan didalamnya.
Flash Memory
Flash memory juga dikenal sebagai EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory), flash memory berbeda dengan Main Memory dalam penyelamatan data. Flash Memory tak akan kehilangan data walaupun kehilangan power listrik sehingga digolongkan sebagai Unvolatile Memory. Pembacaan data dalam Flash Memory dibutuhkan waktu kurang dari 1 nanosecond (1/1000 microsecond), yang kira-kira secepat pembacaan data dari Main Memory. Bagaimanapun penulisan data ke Flash Memory lebih ruwet, data bisa ditulis sekali yang memakan waktu 4 – 10 microsecond, tapi tidak bisa dioverwrite secara langsung. Untuk mengoverwrite data yang telah ada kita harus menghapus data tersebut lebih dulu, setelah itu data baru dapat dioverwrite. Kekurangan Flash Memory yaitu hanya dapat melakukan penghapusan ulang sekitar 10.000 sampai 1 juta kali. Flash Memory populer digunakan sebagai pengganti Magnetic Disk dalam menampung data yang berukuran tidak besar. Selain itu Flash Memory juga populer sebagai media penyimpanan untuk system computer sederhana, seperty HP, Camera Digital, dan media digital lainnya.
Magnetic Disk
Magnetic Disk memberikan media penyimpanan sekunder dalam jumlah besar. Kapasitas Disk selalu meningkat lebih dari 50% setiap tahunnya, namun kebutuhan media penyimpanan untuk aplikasi besarpun meningkat dengan cepat, dalam beberapa kasus kadang database yang besar membutuhkan ratusan disk untuk menampung data tersebut.

Data yang disimpan dalam disk dalam unit disebut Disk Block. Block Disk tersusun atas cincin yang konsentris yang disebut Track, dalam sebuah piringan atau lebih. Seset Track yang memiliki diameter sama disebut Cylinder. Setiap track terbagi atas lengkungan-lengkungan yang disebut Sector yang besarnya berdasarkan karakteristik disk dan tak bisa diubah, sedangkan ukuran Block dapat ditentukan ketika diinisialisasikan sebagai multiple sector.
Physical Characteristics of Disks
• Head Motion
o Fixed Head Disk : memiliki head untuk setiap track, sehingga computer dapat berpindah dari track ke track lain dengan cepat tanpa perlu memindahkan head. Namun dikarenakan banyaknya head sehingga membuat disk ini harganya sangat mahal.
o Moveable Head Disk : berbeda dengan Fixed Head Disk, Moveable Head Disk hanya memiliki sebuah head, sehingga head harus bisa berada diatas track manapun. Karena hal ini sehingga lengan head dapat merentang dan kembali ke tujuan tertentu.
• Disk Portability
o Nonremovable Disk : yaitu disk drive yang permanen, contohnya hardisk dalam sebuah PC adalah Nonremoveable Disk.
o Removeable Disk : yaitu disk yang dapat dipindahkan atau bisa diganti dengan disk yang lain. Floppy Disk dan ZIP Cartridge adalah contoh Removeable Disk.
• Sides
o Single Sided : lapisan magnetic berada pada kedua sisi piringan disk.
o Double Sided : lapisan magnetic berada pada satu sisi piringan.
• Platters
o Single Platter : magnetic disk dengan satu piringan.
o Multiple Platter : magnetic disk dengan lebih dari satu piringan, yang tertumpuk secara vertikal. Untuk membaca disk ini diperlukan head dengan banyak lengan, tergantung banyaknya piringan disk, sehingga setiap piringan terdapat lengan head.
• Head Mechanism
o Contact (Floppy) : mekanisasi head yang ketika proses pembacaan dan penulisan data, head mengalami kontak dengan disk.
o Fixed Gap : head telah diletakkan dalam tempat yang tetap diatas piringan disk.
o Aerodynamic Gap (Winchester) : Winchester head dirancang untuk beroperasi lebih dekat ke prmukaan disk dari pada yang selazimnya, sehingga menbentuk kepadatan data. Headnya biasanya merupakan Aerodinamic Foil yang ringan yang berada diatas permukaan piringan ketika disk berputar. Tekanan udara dari perputaran disk cukup membuat head terangkat ke atas permukaan piringan. Sehingga terbentuklah suatu sistem diama head berada dekat diatas permukaan piringan, namun tetap tidak melakukan kontak langsung.
Optical Disk
Optical Disk adalah media penyimpanan yang proses pembacaan dan penulisan menggunakan laser. Produk Optical Disk :
• CD (Compact Disk), sebuah nonerasable disk yang menyimpan informasi audio digital. Standar sistemnya menggunakan 12-cm disk dan bisa merekam 60 menit waktu main.
• CD-ROM (CD-Read Only Memory), sebuah nonerasable disk yang digunakan untuk menampung data komputer. Standar sistemnya menggunakan 12-cm disk dan dapat menampung data sebesar 640 megabyte.
• CD-R (CD-Recordable), sama seperti CD-ROM, user hanya bisa menulis data sekali.
• CD-RW(CD-Rewriteable), sama seperti CD-ROM, user dapat menghapus dan menulis ulang data berkali-kali.
[GAMBAR]

• DVD (Digital Video Disk), sebuah teknologi untuk memproduksi digital, yang merekam informasi video. Antara diameter 8 dan 12-cm bisa digunakan dengan kedua sisi disknya, sehingga dapat mendobelkan kapasitasnya menjadi 17 gigabyte. Standar DVD adalah read-only (DVD-ROM);
• DVD-R (DVD-Recordable), sama seperti DVD-ROM, user hanya dapat merekam data satu kali dan hanya pada satu sisiyang dapat digunakan.
• DVD-RW (DVD-Rewriteable), sama seperti DVD-ROM, user hanya dapat merekam data berkali-kali dan hanya satu sisi disk yang dapat digunakan.
-Magnetic Tapes
Magnetic Tapes umumnya digunakan untuk membackup data atau mengarcipkan data. Walaupun lebih murah dari Magnetic Disk tetapi proses pengaksesan data lebih lambat, karena menggunakan Sequential Access yang harus mengakses data berurutan dari awal, berbeda dengan Magnetic Disk yang menggunakan Direct Access yang dapat mengakses data dari manapun.
Magnetic Tapes memiliki daya tampung data yang besar. Dan dapat di pundahkanke dalam Tape Drive. Tape Jukeboxes dapat menampung data yang sangat besar, seperti misalnya data remote-sensing dari satellit yang dimana bisa mencapai ratusan terabyte (112 byte atau kadang bisa mencapat petabyte (115 byte).

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4,532 thoughts on “Hardware Basic : Prosesor, Memori dan Secondary Storage

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